Issued referral

Any referral, regardless of documentation, defined as a process in which a health worker at one level of the health system, having insufficient resources (e.g., drugs, equipment, skills) to manage a clinical condition, seeks the assistance of a better or differently resourced facility at the same or higher level to assist in or take over the management of a client's case.

Effective referral

A documented referral which results in any client going to a provider and accessing a health service that is part of the minimum package of services of the appropriate health area within a pre-determined time frame (Minimum package and time frame will depend on health are, i.e. Reproductive Health, HIV, TB, and Malaria and Child Survival). A referral can be documented in one of two ways: 1) through voucher or referral cards, and 2) by estimating exposure to PSI demand generation.

Out-of-network referral

A referral made from an in-network provider to an out-of-network provider.

In-network provider

A provider is a PSI direct service delivery provider, a service delivery partner, or a provider at a PSI franchise. Providers may include health clinicians, as well as community health works, such as IPC agents.

Out-of-network provider

A provider that PSI refers clients to, but is NOT him or herself a PSI direct service delivery provider, service delivery partner provider, nor a PSI franchise provider (ie. providers in public hospitals) - see definitions below. Providers may include health clinicians as well as community health workers, such as IPC agents

Referral source

The referral source is the source of where the referral came from.


BCC: Behavior Change Communications - includes any communication which generates demand for services, including Interpersonal Communications (IPC), media campaigns, billboards, posters, distribution of brochures, or community meetings.

Franchise Facility: External providers operating out of their own facilities (may be private, public, or NGO) on an on-going basis (may be via regular clinic hours or specified days or hours when the service is offered -- either way, consumers have on-going access to the service via this channel).  A PSI social franchise encompasses a network of health practitioners linked through contractual agreements to provide socially beneficial services of a specified quality under a common brand. In order to be considered a PSI social franchise, the following criteria must be met 

  1. Outlets are “owner-operated”.
  2. Payments to outlets are primarily based on services provided.
  3. Services are standardized (e.g. follow standard operating procedures meeting PSI quality standards).
  4. Clinical services are offered, with or without franchise-branded commodities.
  5. Network is branded (i.e. there is a brand associated with the network and outlets operating as franchisees are affiliated with that brand).

Service Delivery Partner: Meets criteria for significant involvement for service delivery but do not meet criteria for franchise membership.  This could include service providers who do not operate out of health facilities, such as community health workers.

PSI Direct Service Provider: A facility that operates under PSI management thereby meeting criteria for significant involvement.